The Slovak Republic was established on 1 January 1993 as one of the successors to the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. It is a parliamentary democracy and its Constitution guarantees equal rights to everyone regardless of gender, race, skin colour, language, creed, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin, nationality or ethnic origin, property, descent or any other status.
The National Council of the Slovak Republic is a unicameral parliament and the country’s main legislative body. The National Council has 150 members elected for 4‑year terms in a direct election. The electoral system is proportional representation. Parties are allocated seats in the Parliament according to the percentage share of the votes they get in parliamentary elections. Only a party with at least 5 % of votes can obtain seats in the Parliament. The next parliamentary election is scheduled for 2024.
The President of the Slovak Republic is the Head of State elected for a 5‑year term in a direct election. The same person can be elected President for a maximum of two consecutive terms. The current President of the Slovak Republic is Mrs. Zuzana Čaputová (since 2019). The next presidential elections are scheduled to be held in 2024.
The Government of the Slovak Republic is the highest tier of executive power. The Cabinet consists of the Prime Minister, his deputies, and ministers. The Prime Minister is nominated by the President and is usually the leader of the majority party after the parliamentary election. Upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister, the President appoints and dismisses other members of the Cabinet. The Government is collectively responsible for the exercise of governmental powers to the Parliament, which may hold a vote of no confidence at any time. The Parliament can also hold a vote of no confidence against a single member of the Cabinet. The current Prime Minister is Mr. Eduard Heger (appointed in 2021).